Bone Graft, also known as transplantation of bone tissue, is a surgical process that is used to fix the issues with the bones or joints. The procedure is useful for repairing the damaged bones. Not only this, but bone grafting is also helpful for the growth of bones around the implanted device like total knee replacement had a bone loss or fracture or for the dental implants.
To know bone grafting in detail, one needs to know about bones. So, the bones mainly consist of a matrix made up of a protein called collagen and are strengthened by calcium deposits and Phosphate salts, which are known as hydroxyapatite. Around this matrix, are situated the cells of the bones. The cells can be primarily categorized into three types- Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, and Osteoclasts.
Have a look about them:
Osteoblast– These are responsible for producing bone matrices and for manufacturing hormones like prostaglandins. Moreover, these are the immature bone cells and eventually get trapped in the matrix to become osteocytes.
Osteocytes– Unlike Osteoblasts, these are the mature cells originating from the osteoblasts. The space occupied by them is called lacunae. They are responsible for the maintenance of the matrix and Ca’s homeostasis.
Osteoclasts– These cells are responsible for remodeling and resorption of the bones. They are large and are located on the surfaces of bone.
Bone Graft in Detail
Bone grafting can fix the defect in three different ways, namely, Osteoinduction, osteoconduction, and osteogenesis. But overall, the method focuses on repairing the imperfections in the bones. The notable point is that the novel bone for grafting can be taken from the other fit bones from the patient’s body( known as an autograft) or from the stored bones of other people( known as an allograft). Sometimes, the concoction of collagen and other natural and synthetic materials are also used in place of bone.
Below are the steps to bone grafting:
Step1- Surgeon takes the bone from another area of your body and makes it in the same shape of the defect to fit correctly.
Step2- Surgeon makes the incision in the defective part.
Step3- Surgeon places the graft carefully. The incision is stitched, and a splint is used to restrict movements.
Aftercare associated with bone grafts:
Bone grafts have a commendable healing rate. However, the exact healing rate may vary depending upon the size of the defect and the condition of surrounding bones. You must know that severe grafts may need deep attention after the grafts are placed. The average recovery time varies from 2 weeks to 2 months.
However, difficult the situation of the treated area, one must be careful regarding the aftercare. A proper healthy diet should be taken to heal the stitched area quickly. Plus, the patients need to know that in case of any pains in the treated area, they need to contact the surgeon and avoid taking any medicines themselves. The same is the suggestion in the case of a drain in their wounds.
The bone graft is a surgical procedure, so you need to be careful during the entire process. Also, you must make sure to get it done from trusted and experienced hands.